Minggu, 12 Mei 2013

Coordinate, Conjunction and paralel construction


                In geometry, a coordinate system is a system which uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of a point or other geometric element on a manifold such as eucledaen space. The order of the coordinates is significant and they are sometimes identified by their position in an ordered tuple and sometimes by a letter, as in 'the x-coordinate'. The coordinates are taken to be real numbers in elementary mathematics, but may be complex numbers. or elements of a more abstract system such as a commutative ring. The use of a coordinate system allows problems in geometry to be translated into problems about numbers and vice versa; this is the basis of analityce geometry.
example of coordinate :

               The simplest example of a coordinate system is the identification of points on a line with real numbers using the number line. In this system, an arbitrary point O (the origin) is chosen on a given line. The coordinate of a point P is defined as the signed distance from O to P, where the signed distance is the distance taken as positive or negative depending on which side of the line P lies. Each point is given a unique coordinate and each real number is the coordinate of a unique point.[4]
The number line


                 In grammer, a conjunction (abbereviated CONJ or CNJ) is a part of speech that connects two words, sentences, phrases or clauses together. A discourse connective is a conjunction joining sentences. This definition may overlap with that of other parts of speech, so what constitutes a "conjunction" must be defined for each language. In general, a conjunction is an invariabl gramatical particle, and it may or may not stand between the items it conjoins.

                 The definition may also be extended to idiomatic phrases that behave as a unit with the same single-word conjunction (as well as, provided that, etc. many student are taught that certain conjunctions (such as "and", "but", "because", and "so") should not begin sentences; although authorities such as the chicago manual of style state that this teaching has "no historical or grammatical foundation".
A simple literary example of a conjunction: "the truth of nature, and the power of giving interest" (Samuel Taylor Coleridge's Biographia Literaria)types of conjunctions :
-coordinating conjunctions
-subordinating conjunctions
-correlative conjunctions

Coordinating conjunctions
                Coordinating conjunctions, also called coordinators, are conjunctions that join, or coordinate, two or more items (such as words, main clauses, or sentences) of equal syntactic importance. In English, the mnemonic acronym FANBOYS can be used to remember the coordinators for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so .
example of coordinate conjunctions in english:
presents a reason ("He is gambling with his health, for he has been smoking far too long.").
presents non-contrasting item(s) or idea(s) ("They gamble, and they smoke.").
presents a non-contrasting negative idea ("They do not gamble nor do they smoke.").
presents a contrast or exception ("They gamble, but they don't smoke.").
presents an alternative item or idea ("Every day they gamble or they smoke.").
presents a contrast or exception ("They gamble, yet they don't smoke.").
presents a consequence ("He gambled well last night so he smoked a cigar to celebrate.").
Subordinating conjunctios
                  Subordinating conjunctions, also called subordinators, are conjunctions that conjoin and independent clause and dependent clause. The most common subordinating conjunctions in the English language include after, although, as, as far as, as if, as long as, as soon as, as though, because, before, if, in order that, since, so, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, where as, wherever, and while. complementizers can be considered to be special subordinating conjunctions that introduce complement clauses (e.g., "I wonder whether he'll be late. I hope that he'll be on time").

Corelative conjunctions
                 Correlative conjunctions work in pairs to join words and groups of words of equal weight in a sentence. There are six different pairs of correlative conjunctions:
  1. either...or
  2. not only...but (also)
  3. neither...nor (or increasingly neither...or)
  4. both...and
  5. whether...or
  6. just as...so
  • You either do your work or prepare for a trip to the office.
  • Not only is he handsome, but he is also brilliant.
  • Neither the basketball team nor the football team is doing well.
  • Both the cross country team and the swimming team are doing well.
  • Whether you stay or you go, it's your decision.
  • Just as many Australians love cricket, so many Canadians love ice hocke

                  In grammer, parallelism, also known as parallel structure or parallel construction, is a balance within one or more sentences of similar phrases or clauses that have the same grammatical structure.The application of parallelism improves writing style and readability, and is thought to make sentences easier to process
Parallelism is often achieved using antithesis, anaphora, asyndeton, climax, epistrope, and symploce.
example of paralel construction :
  • Lacking parallelism: She likes cooking, jogging, and to read.
  • Parallel: She likes cooking, jogging, and reading.
In the above example, the first sentence has two gerunds and one invinitiv. To make it parallel, the sentence was rewritten with three gerunds instead.
  • Lacking parallelism: The dog ran across the yard, jumped over the fence, and down the alley he sprinted.
  • Parallel: The dog ran across the yard, jumped over the fence, and sprinted down the alley.
  • Lacking parallelism: Mr. Killinger admires people with integrity and who have character.
  • Parallel: Corey admires people with integrity and character.
  • Parallel: Corey admires people who have integrity and character.

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